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Migration: Cause and Effects

Lesson Plan Item

General Information
Grade 3rd Grade Class N/A Length of Lesson 45 Minutes
Lesson Title Migration: Cause and Effects
Unit Title Migration
Unit Compelling Question Why is it important to study human migration?
Historical Context:

This lesson allows third graders the opportunity to explore and discover what the impacts and influences are that migration has on an area as population increases, involving social, political, cultural, and economic impacts.

 

During the mid to late 1800s, the country experienced waves of migration that brought new people to new places. The first photo of Main Street in Britt, Iowa, in 1896 was taken during a large event celebrating the 77th Anniversary of the formation of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. This is an international fraternal foundation founded in Maryland in 1819. The foundation developed lodges across the country, and the goal of the group was to “visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead, and educate the orphan,” as quoted by Grande Sire D.D. Monroe in 1944. Starting in the late 1800s and following over the next decades, the organization spread West and grew in size and membership, and is still active today.

https://iowamuseums.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/B97CF9F9-7508-4BCC-8...

 

Throughout this time, in addition to organizations expanding across the country, people groups were also moving and populations were expanding throughout the country westward. This statistical atlas of the United States is based upon the results of the 11th census which was completed in 1890. It shows the population expansion westward in the United States between 1830 and 1860, not including the population of Native Americans who were not taxed.

https://iowaculture.gov/history/education/educator-resources/primary-sou...

Lesson Supporting Question How does migration influence an area?
Lesson Overview

Students will explore the different effects that migration has on an area, including the social, political, economic, and cultural effects that occur through cause and effect. This lesson will begin with an interactive questioning process to get students engaged with the idea of different influences that migration causes and the reason for those influences. It will then transition into an exploration of what different impacts are seen because of migration, and the causes and effects that go along with those impacts with the help of primary source pictures and maps. 

Primary Sources Used
Resources Needed
Standard
Lesson Target
  • Students will describe the cause and effect that moving to a new place has on a group of people or an area.
Lesson Themes No themes are assigned for this lesson.
Lesson Procedure
Step Procedure Time Differentiation plan / Additional Information
Bell Ringer 

Anticipatory Set: Interactive Questioning

 

Begin the lesson by staging the following question to the class. Have students write down as many answers as they can in one minute: 

What are some reasons why someone might migrate from one place to another?

 

After students are given one minute to write down their answers, have the students compare their individual answers to the other students in their group by creating a list on a bigger sheet of paper.

 

Have student groups share out a few of their answers with the class as a whole. As students are sharing their answers, write down the answers on the board or on a chart paper in the front of the classroom.
5 Min 

A key foundation to this lesson is to understand the concept of cause and effect, which is what this opening activity begins to explore. Students are introduced to the idea of what a cause is. 

 

Differentiation plan: student readiness will be a focus in this section as the students who are more ready will not be as guided throughout the listing process. For the student groups who are grouped together due to being less ready, more time will be spent guiding them and providing a scaffold of questions to guide their thinking in a way that allows them to create a list comparable to a list created from students who are more ready. Students at an average readiness level will be guided if they are stuck or need it. 
Teacher

Part 1: Cause

Using the list that the students generated, introduce the term “cause”. 

Cause: a reason why something happened


Explain to students that the reasons they listed are all causes as to why someone or a group might migrate. For example, if “a new job” was listed, explain to students that sometimes people move to a new place for a new or better job, which would be the cause of them moving.

 

Next, explain to students that there are many different causes as can be seen on the board, but they can all be grouped into bigger categories. 

Using student examples, come up with the list of different causes: social, political, economic, educational, and cultural. 

To do this, ask the students how different examples are possibly related. 

For example: Using the causes “a new job” and “more money”, ask the students how those two causes are related. Using their answers, guide the discussion to end by creating the category name of “economic”.  

Continue to go through the whole list and begin to group them based on what type of cause they are. Do this until they are all grouped.
8 MIn 

Differentiation plan: in order to differentiate for student readiness, the questions asked during this time to guide student learning will be the primary focus. 

At average readiness level: If as a class, the students are all at a level of readiness that seems appropriate for this teacher moment, the students will be asked how the different causes are related with only a little guidance. They will be given time to think about how they are all related and will be given only a few hints as to how they might be.

Above readiness: If the whole class or even a few students are at an above readiness level, they will be given much less guidance when listing the categories. In addition to this, the students who are at a higher level of readiness could be asked to group the examples into different categories on their own rather than as a class for a bit of a challenge.

Below readiness: For the students or class as a whole that are below the level of readiness, this activity could be adjusted so that the categories names are listed rather than having to come up with them. The students would then be guided more directly by going each example one by one and placing them into the correct category together. 

Students 

Gallery Walk: 

Students will now participate in a gallery walk that explores the different categories of causes for migration. 

Around the room will be posters that have each of the categories: social, political, economic, educational, and cultural. 

On each of the posters will be examples of these causes, as well as a story or example of a real people group who migrated because of that cause. 

For example, for “educational”, a made up story of a student moving to a new state for college could be written on the poster, or a real life historical example could be given as well. 

 

Students will be given a sheet that has each of the categories for causes, and they are to write down one sentence or draw a picture that will help them remember that cause.

 

Warn students when there is one minute left.

9 Min 

Differentiation plan: in order to differentiate for student readiness, the questions asked during this time to guide student learning will be the primary focus. 

At average readiness level: If as a class, the students are all at a level of readiness that seems appropriate for this teacher moment, the students will be asked how the different causes are related with only a little guidance. They will be given time to think about how they are all related and will be given only a few hints as to how they might be.

Above readiness: If the whole class or even a few students are at an above readiness level, they will be given much less guidance when listing the categories. In addition to this, the students who are at a higher level of readiness could be asked to group the examples into different categories on their own rather than as a class for a bit of a challenge.

Below readiness: For the students or class as a whole that are below the level of readiness, this activity could be adjusted so that the categories names are listed rather than having to come up with them. The students would then be guided more directly by going each example one by one and placing them into the correct category together. 

Advanced preparation: before the students begin this lesson, have the posters prepared and ready to hang or already hung up as well as the worksheets ready to hand out to students. 

 

Differentiation for readiness: 

At average readiness level: Students will go around the room following the traditional rules of a gallery walk. They will each complete their own worksheets and will walk around the room individually. If students have questions or seem to be getting stuck with a concept, they will be guided as needed.

Above readiness: Students who are above readiness will be given a slightly different worksheet. Their readiness will be determined based on how they have responded to the formative assessments in this unit so far as well as how their understanding is being measured based on class participation. Their worksheet will have room to write the sentence or draw a picture, as well as they are to come up with their own example for two out of the five poster stations. 

Below readiness: For the students who are below readiness, they will also have their own worksheet that is slightly different. On their worksheet, they will have the categories with definition already printed on to it. From there, they are to write their own sentence to remember the cause or draw a picture. 

 

In addition to this differentiation, if it is a better choice, the students can complete this activity in groups rather than on their own. The groups would be divided by students based on readiness as mentioned earlier, and the students who are more ready would have the advanced worksheet to complete together, the students at an average readiness level would get the basic worksheet, and the students below would get the guided worksheet to complete in their groups.

transition 

Students will transition from the gallery walk back to their seats, bringing their worksheets with them. 

 

Now that students have seen what the causes of migration are, it is time to explore what the effects of those causes are on the land and the people. 
1 Min  Students who have physical disabilities will be given a warning earlier so they have more time to transition into Part 2. 
Teacher 

Part 2: Effect

Now that students have learned about what the causes are for people to migrate, introduce the term “effect”.

Effect: the result of a cause

 

There is a relationship between causes and effects, as they are connected together. An effect is the result of a cause. 

Ask students:

If we know that an effect is a result of a cause, what are some effects that these causes might have on the people migrating?

 

Use student answers to discuss as a class what some of the effects could be on the people who have migrated. For example, a person migrating to a new place for a new job might get more money or make new friends at work. 

Go through a few of the causes and discuss as a class what the effects are on the people involved. 

 

From here, introduce the second question and ask students:

We now know some of the effects on  the people migrating, but what about the place that the people migrated to?

Discuss this question as a large group and list a few of the effects that migration has on an area. For example, more people moving to an area for educational reasons such as college could result in a wave of young people in an area, making the population grow and the area more popular.

 

After some of the effects on the area have been  discussed, introduce the two primary sources. 

 

Show and explain Primary Source #1: 

The first photo of Main Street in Britt, Iowa, in 1896 was taken during a large event celebrating the 77th Anniversary of the formation of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. This is an international fraternal foundation founded in Maryland in 1819. The foundation developed lodges across the country, and the goal of the group was to “visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead, and educate the orphan,” as quoted by Grande Sire D.D. Monroe in 1944. Starting in the late 1800s and following over the next decades, the organization spread West and grew in size and membership, and is still active today.

 

Show and explain Primary Source #2: 

This statistical atlas of the United States is based upon the results of the 11th census which was completed in 1890. It shows the population expansion westward in the United States between 1830 and 1860, not including the population of Native Americans who were not taxed.
8 Min 

This discussion is able to be differentiated for readiness as it can be guided to offer more support or less.

If needed, the cause can be given and the potential effect of the cause can then be talked about as a group.

                         

In addition to this, the primary sources can be differentiated before the students work on them on their own. This can be done by rather than having the students get the primary sources and work on them on their own right away, the class can go over a few examples of what different effects on the land could be based on what is seen in the pictures. This would guide the students and prepare them for the student work time next.
Students 

“Thinking Like” Primary Source Effect Evaluation: 

Students will now be given time to connect all that has been discussed in this lesson. 

 

Students will be working in their groups and will be given copies of each of the primary source pictures. They will also be given a copy of the “Thinking Like” worksheet with the definitions of what each thinking like profession does. 

From here, students will use the Primary Sources to create a list as a group of potential causes and effects that may happen based on the pictures. Students will create at least one potential cause and effect on the area for each of the different “thinking like” roles.

For example, looking at the first primary picture students may create a cause that people were moving to the town of Britt to work for the fraternal foundation, and effect of this on the area could be an increase in the money in the town, which is how an economist would think.

 

Students complete this for each of the “thinking like” areas as a group. 

 

Bring students back together and ask if there are any questions before moving on to the exit slip. 
9 Min 

In order to guide students thinking towards thinking critically, write thinking prompts on the board or create handouts that explore the different ways that people can think critically. Even though this is a practice that should be explored in the classroom, some students may need guiding as to what it means to think critically in these respects:

Historian:a person who explains changes that have happened in the past. 

Geographer: a person who studies the environment and how it impacts people.

Political scientist: a person who studies the government and how they work.

Economist: a person who studies the ways people make a living. 

 

To differentiate for readiness:

At average readiness level:Students at an average readiness level will be in their normal student groups and will complete the set worksheet as a group. 

Above readiness:Students above readiness will be grouped together and will list the required one cause per “thinking like” group, as well as will then list what the effect is on the area as well as the people who migrated there. If this is done early, students in this group will then list more than one example per category. 

Below readiness:Students below readiness will be grouped together and will be more guided as more time will be spent with them. Their worksheet will also have more guidance, as the cause will be listed out and they are to just write down the effect on the area based on the cause given. 
Closure 

Exit Slip:

As an exit slip, student understanding of cause and effect will be measured. 

 

Students will be asked to write down their own definition of cause and effect, and then give an example of what a potential cause would be for someone to move across the country, and what a potential effect would be on the new area being moved to.

 

Students will write it down on a piece of paper and will then turn in that paper and their other worksheets from the day. 
5 Min 

The exit slip will be differentiated for readiness as students who are more ready or at an average level of readiness will be expected to write out the full definitions of cause and effect and give their examples.

Students who are less ready will be given the effect on an area, and will only have to come up with the definition for cause and effect and list what the potential cause is in order to get the effect listed. 
Assessment
Formative Assessment
(How will you use the formative assessments to monitor and inform instruction?)
  • Students will complete an Exit Slip as the formative assessment for this lesson. Students will be asked to write down their own definition of cause and effect, and then give an example of what a potential cause would be for someone to move across the country, and what a potential effect would be on the new area being moved to. This slip will be read and checked for understanding. It will be noted which students understand the definitions completely, somewhat, or not at all, as well as which students can give proper examples. The results will be used to guide the next lesson, as if the majority of students do not understand the definitions or need better examples, the next lesson can be more of a review with a focus on going over what was talked about today. If more students do understand what is being taught, less of a review will be done and more causes and effects will be introduced into the next lesson. These results will also help group students for the following lessons about cause and effect.
Summative Assessment
(How does the lesson connect to planned summative assessment(s)?)
  • This overall unit focuses on why and how people migrate and what impact migration has on an area. As a summative assessment, students will be creating two “Google Maps” that portray the migration pattern and story of an indigenous group to Iowa as well as create their own migration pattern and story. Students will pick an idigenous group and will research their history and migration to and from Iowa, and will write a short summary explaining their migration. They will then be given a map and will color and create a visual representation of this migration. Students will then do a similar activity, but will write about their own family migration or will create a migration pattern of their own, in which they will write a short summary and color a map once again. In their summary, students should include a description of the migration pattern, what the reason for migration was or may have been, as well as what impact it had on the area that the group left or came to. For their personal migration map, students should do the same for their family, or if they chose to create a new one, they should make up logical answers to the same questions. This lesson connects to the summative assessment as students will begin to discover the impacts that migration has on an area through cause and effect. Within their personalized map creation, students will be asked to write short summaries about the migration story they are telling. Within these short summaries, the students should include at least two impacts or influences that were caused to an area because of migration. The students will highlight what the cause of the migration was, as well as the effect that that move had on the area that was migrated to. This beginning lesson on what influences, causes, and effects are on an area creates a foundation for students to begin to conceptualize what causes and effects are and how they connect to migration.
Author Information
Author Abby Rose Reviewer Dr. Chad Timm, Simpson College Created 06/21/2020 Last Edited 06/21/2020
Lesson Plan Development Notes:

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